Monday, March 30, 2009
“Hurry up! We are getting late, it is increasing the darkness. We have not made the instrument and simal’s bough. No way! Our friends would leave us; we do not get the space”.
When I remember it, behold As if I am dreaming of. But the reality is still remaining in a corner of my mind as a beautiful nostalgia while catching chepchepmaa (1).
Different groups would be seen heading towards fields to catch it in the twilight. They had a kind of competition to catch more. That beautiful moment of catching chepchepmaa remained mysterious in mind when i mentally came up with maturity.
Sometimes in national geography and discovery channel on television, to see the programs related to it cultivated my mind that chepchepmaa become a good subject matter of study and documentary. Still I am thinking alike.
There are two things essential to catch chapchepmaa: The one is Simali’s bough having small another two boughs both sides and instrument made by bamboo. It has one foot long cut in the middle so that it could give the same sound that of chepchepmaa.
In my memory I do not have catching many more. Because of age and size not being able to use hand faster, Friends who caught fast used to collect around three hundreds.
What is chepchepmaa?
It belongs to insects’ kind live in jungle. It is indistinct that how it forms. It has one year lifespan. Chepchepmaa would change its color when it turns into jhyaukiri (2). June and July are two month chepchepmaa are found in the jungle to have formed as jhyaukiri. Generally in the mid of feb and first of march chepchepmaa is caught.
Since chepchepmaa is a kind of insect live in the jungle, to catch it in the field near the jungle is appropriate place. Simali (3) is stuck into soil that it could stand strong alone without any supports and an instrument made by bamboo is tapped either on palm or on the stone precisely.
They begin to come after hearing sound produced by the instrument. There may be the question. how do they come by hearing that sound?
Yes, it is certain that there is something similarity between chepchepmaas’ sound and instrument. But chepchepmaa can not be identified unless it changes to jhyaukiri.
At around 6:30 in the evening is supposed to be suitable time. Whole day though changed place one to another, in the evening in search of friends they are wandering.
So when the instrument is played, sound produced by the bamboo made instrument is echoed that is to be heard exact as of chepchepmaa.
Geographically it is found in hilly regions where the (field) place is covered by jungle. And also, there will be no problem if the village is situated nearby jungle. But there is no guarantee of getting all over the regions. Even in the same place we can notice that ratio of chepchepmaa would not be same. Some days its ratio is found higher, sometimes lower.
Moderate climate is appropriate for chepchepmaa. It does not survive in cold temperate zone. It develops in spring season when leaves are begun to grow.
More recently chepchepmaa system has arrived almost on the verse of extinction. This culture had specially been initiated by lohorung community. Mass majority of the people, even in the vicinity who are non- lohorung, do not know about it. When asked the question about it to the lohorung people no one is sure how did it develop within?
All of them showed unknowingness.
This can be interesting subject matter which is also associated with ecology. People who are related to documentary film making will be wonderful research.
(Chepchepmaa): it is lohorung term, an insect having six legs with wings
(jhyaukiri): it is developed form of chepchepmaa, it has acute sound
(simali): a kind of plant with green color. It is often used to make fence and stick in the countryside.
Monday, March 23, 2009
लोहोरुङमा परिवारका कुनै पनि सदस्य बिरामी भएमा के काराणले बिरामी परेको हो थाहा पाउन र उपचार गर्न् बीरामीले लगाएको कपडा पुजारी अर्थत याटाङपा कहा बेलुकिपख पठाएको रातको बिहानीपख उज्यालो नहुदाई के लागेको हो पेअलाम् बिधिद्वारा यापेन् हेर्ने गरिन्छ !यापेन् हेर्दा के लागेको देखिन्छ सोही अनुसार् सामान्य झारफुक, पित्री पुकारा वा साम्माङ नै गर्नु पर्ने हो यटाङपाले नै नीर्धारण गर्दछन! तत्काल पुजा गर्न सम्भब नहुने स्थीतिमा याटाङपाद्वारा अक्षता सालको पातमा पोको पारी पछि पुजा गराउने बाचा बन्धनका साथ् बाधा उठाउने कार्य गरी सो बाधा बिरामीको घरको छानामा कसैले नभेटने गरी सीउरेर राखिनछ र पछि उपयुत्त समयमा साम्माङ गरी बाधा फुकाइन्छ ! यद्दपी साम्माङ गर्नको लागि विरामी नै भएको हुनुपर्छ भन्ने छैन, आफुले चिताएको कुनै कुरा पुराहोस् भनी वा सुख सम्रिधी होस् भनेर कामना गर्न वा बल् माग्न को लागी पनी साम्माङ गर्ने गरीन्छ ! जुनसुकै साम्माङमा टुखखाको मुअई अनीवार्या राखिन्छ ! साम्माङमा पकाउने काम् पुरुषहरुले मात्र गर्ने गर्दछन! रजस्वला भएका महीला समेत अलग्गै बसी साम्माङमा सहभागी हुन सक्छन् !नौरथा भित्र कुनै सम्माङ गरिन्दैन! चोखो साम्माङ उभौलीमा मात्र गरीन्छ रा अरु साम्माङ जुन्सुकै ऋतुमा गर्न् सकिन्छ ! साम्माङ गर्दा आफन्ताहरुलाइ पनि उपस्थीतिको लागी निम्तो दिने गरीन्छ र निम्तो दिए पछि जुनसुकै साम्माङ होस् उपस्थीति हुन नभ्याउने भए स्पस्ट नभ्याउने जानकारी दिनु पर्छ नत्र निम्तो स्विकार गरे पछी अनिवार्या उपस्थीति भएकै हुनु पर्दछ ! जुनसुकै साम्माङ गरेको भोलीपल्ट साम्माङ लगाउने परिवारले काम् गर्न् नहुने मान्यता रही आएको छ जसलाई मायिक्मा बार्ने भन्ने गरिन्छ ! सामान्यतया लोहोरुङले ग्री ल्याएको वा पुजील्याएको साम्माङहरु निम्न अनुसार छन् !१) पाप्पा साम्माङ २) चक्ख साम्माङ ३) खिम्पिए साम्माङ ४)लाटाबा साम्माङ ५) देचापा साम्माङ ६) सुब्बा सुब्बेनी साम्माङ ७) इक्साम्माङ आदि हुन् !
Sunday, March 1, 2009
Nepal is a multi-racial, multi-lingual, multi-cultural and multi-religious country. Taking stock of these truths, the Constitution of the of Nepal of 1990 has put forward a conceptual design to uplift the living standards of the Indigenous Nationalities - respectively known, identified and addressed as "Adibasi Janajati" - by removing all sorts of existing economic and social inequalities and to set up and develop their healthy social life based on justice and morality, thus consolidating the national integrity, and preserving such peoples' identities and cultural diversities by developing their languages, literatures, arts, scripts, religions and cultures and by creating special opportunities for their education, well-being and employment.
According to the 1991 census the nationalities/indigenous peoples comprised 35.6 percent of the total population of which the largest group is Magar with 7.2 percent. Most of the nationalities groups comprise of small population and many of them are on the verge of extinction like Kusundas, Hayus, Surels, Bankariyas etc. But, the share of nationalities/indigenous population is seemed decreased by 15 percent in 2001 (31.01 percent) from 1991 (35.6 percent) national population census. And the population of Rai in which the Lohorungs are lumped together with is also seemed to decrease by 2 percent in 2001 (2.79 percent) from 1991 (2.84 percent) national population census. It can be the Yakha which is separated from the so-called Rai ethnic group (this is a debated ethnicity and used to be a position given to a local chieftain) in 2001 national population census and enumerated as a different cultural group ( Dahal, 2003).
Similarly, Lohorung Community also proudly feels that Lohorung should be separated from this so-called ethnic Rai ethnic group and considered as a separate cultural group like Yakha, which has its distinct own socio-physical location, socio-cultural norms, language and economic activities and contribution to the nation. In this context, Lohorung Yakhkhaba Yuyong had approached to the concerned government agency to be identified Lohorung as a distinct cultural group and enumerate as Lohorung in 2001 national population census like Yakka. But lack of strong voice of Lohorung Community (politically, socially and intellectually) Lohorung Yakhkhaba Yuyong became unsuccessful in its attempt to be identified Lohorung as a distinct cultural group or indigenous ethnicity in
As the state has declared to remove all sorts of existing economic and social inequalities and to set up and develop their healthy social life based on justice and morality, but it has not given any thought about having a census for segregated data on them as multi-racial, multi-lingual, multi-cultural and multi-religious sect of our social system and has no knowledge on specific clan of people like Rais. Rai is actually is not a label given to indigenous group of people it is rather a label given to a certain class of people to run the administration by the then so-called rulers. Now, Rai label is used for a wide range of ethnic groups who falls under the Kiranti group of Nationalities who differ in languages, cultures and their way of life as their identity. By labeling them as RAI is to exclude them from the state resources provided for their socio-economic upliftment to individual ethnic group of peoples.